LOW-INTENSITY CONFLICT AND MODERN TECHNOLOGY LtCol David J. Dean, USAF, _Editor_

Capt. Paul Tyler
================================================================
MindNet Journal – Vol. 1, No. 42a * [Part 1 of 3 parts]
================================================================
V E R I C O M M / MindNet “Quid veritas est?”
================================================================
Notes:
Permission is given to reproduce and redistribute, for
non-commercial purposes only, provided this information and the
copy remain intact and unedited.
The views and opinions expressed below are not necessarily the
views and opinions of VERICOMM, MindNet, or the editors unless
otherwise noted.
Editor: Mike Coyle
Contributing Editors: Walter Bowart
Alex Constantine
Martin Cannon
Assistant Editor: Rick Lawler
Research: Darrell Bross
Editor’s Note:
The “Tables” in this article referred to as:
“…Tables 2-4 and 2-5 present the depth of penetration of
various frequencies of electromagnetic radiation in
biological tissues…”
…are not included in this reproduction. They are available
at the MindNet FTP site as: [mn142c.txt].
================================================================
Excerpted from:
LOW-INTENSITY CONFLICT AND MODERN TECHNOLOGY
LtCol David J. Dean, USAF, _Editor_
With a Foreword by CONGRESSMAN NEWT GINGRICH
Air University Press, Center for Aerospace Doctrine, Research,
and Education, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama, June 1986.
—————————————————————-
Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication Data
Low-intensity conflict and modern technology.
Papers presented at a workshop conducted by Air University
Center for Aerospace Doctrine, Research, and Education (CADRE),
March 1984.
Includes bibliographies.
1. Low-intensity conflicts–Congresses. 2.
Munitions–Congresses. I. Dean, David J. II. Air University
(U.S.) Center for Aerospace Doctrine, Research, and Education.
U104.L69 1986 355′.0218 86-3537

FOREWORD
The United States is on the verge of a dramatic change in
its ability to cope with low-intensity conflict. We must become
a great deal better in the process of fighting this kind of
“small war”; the world will not give us any choice. We may learn
to adjust our current systems, procedures, and understanding
quickly and intelligently, in which case we will come to cope
with low-intensity conflict very rapidly. Or, we may learn this
difficult art in a grudging, confused, and halting manner, in
which case the next 20 years will be very painful and very
expensive, both for the United States and for the case of
freedom.
This book is a serious effort to make thinking about and
working on low-intensity conflict easier, more understandable,
and more effective. It is a major contribution to what is a
growing literature and dialogue on the obligation of the United
States to respond to the challenge of low-intensity conflict.
This book is needed because the United States finds itself
dramatically challenged by conflict below the level of full-scale
war. Unfortunately, our recent intellectual and bureaucratic
traditions and systems fail to address adequately the challenge
of low-intensity conflict. The organization of power in the State
and Defense Departments and the relationships between the
Congress, the news media, and the executive branch are all
unsuited to fighting a low-intensity conflict effectively.
The United States has a long history of coping rather
successfully with low-intensity threats. From the opening up of
the West by the US Cavalry in the face of the American Indian to
the Philippine insurrection and the turn of the century to the US
Army’s pursuit of Pancho Villa into northern Mexico to the US
Marine Corps presence in Nicaragua and Haiti in the twenties, the
United States systematically subdued low-intensity threats to
America’s policies.
Generally, these forces were used almost without debate or
news coverage. The country went about the process of becoming
more prosperous and more powerful in the pursuit of everyday
life, while allowing its professional soldiers to engage quietly
in dirty little wars in faraway places with almost no regard for
legal nicety or the technical problems of international law.
However, the dominant tradition of the American State Department,
the American news media, and the average American intellectual
community was shaped not by the American experience in the West
or the Philippines or Mexico and Central America, but rather by
the nineteenth century tradition of European thought.
The European tradition is based on the concept of sovereignty
and formal declarations of war. Sophisticated lawyers focused on
the laws of England, Germany, and France. Sophisticated
academicians educated in England, Germany, and France came to
shape the concept of legality which had application to Europe,
but totally ignored European behavior outside of that continent.
In Europe, boundaries were not to be crossed by foreign armed
forces without a formal declaration of war. Once the boundaries
were crossed, a formal war would immediately ensure.
That practice did not pertain to most of the world. British
colonial expeditions against local tribes, bandits, and guerrilla
operations, for example, were routine and primarily military.
These expeditions went virtually unreported except in books like
those of Winston Churchill. When they were covered as spectacular
adventures against backward local natives. The emphasis was
almost always on the heroism of the British rather than on the
use of overpowering force against clearly overmatched natives
simply fighting for their own freedom. If the British campaigns
against the Mahdi, the Zulu, and the Afghans in the nineteenth
century were covered today, we would notice major shifts in
emphasis and bias in that coverage.
The British approach to low-intensity conflict in the
nineteenth century was virtually schizophrenic. This approach had
no place among the legal niceties of international laws that
governed sovereign states which tended to be only European. Thus,
wars could be fought in the gray area between civilized and
uncivilized nations without anyone noticing.
The post-World War II United Nations declared, in effect, that
all of us are civilized and have human rights. The European
concepts of sovereignty and international law became applicable
to all people. This new approach radically changes the approach
of low-intensity conflict. It requires that an entire new area of
international law be developed with those situations in which one
state does not wish to declare war, but, nevertheless, finds
itself engaged in violent action or facing the potential for
violent action with other states.
This area of international life lacks an intellectually
adequate American tradition. Our first great challenge in the
area of low-intensity conflict, is the next 20 years, to invent a
theory of law and structure of behavior that allows us to survive
and win “small wars,” with a framework that maintains certain
basic rights for every human being. In addition, in the
nineteenth century tradition, there was no serious consideration
given to systematic organized terrorism. There were occasional
acts of violence committed by specific and usually identifiable
anarchists. These acts were mostly dealt with by various police
forces operating quietly on the fringes of society, in situations
in which the policemen were heroes. There was almost no
consideration given to the possibility that a sovereign
government was backing the anarchists. Thus, there was no
state-backed terrorism which directly threatened a particular
government.
Whether it is the Irish Republican Army, the Palestine
Liberation Organization, or Islamic fanatics with direct backing
from Libya, Iran, or Syria or indirect backing from Cuba and the
Soviet Union, state-backed terrorism poses a new threat to the
West for which we have no framework to respond. We are going to
have to develop a capacity for striking at the cause of terrorism
and the source of terrorist support if we are to survive in a
free country. That is the second great challenge of out time in
low-intensity conflict.
Finally, in the nineteenth century, there was no single empire
systematically creating conflicts around the planet, looking for
weaknesses in its opponents which could be exploited by new
methods of warfare violence. The simple fact is the Soviet
empire and its colonies have studied the West and have come to
the conclusion that our greatest vulnerability is in
low-intensity conflict. In this type of conflict, the Soviet
Union suffers little if its client is defeated but gains greatly
if its client wins.
Since the Soviets have discovered the blind spot in our
intellectual armor for competition, we can expect more and more
low-intensity conflict for the foreseeable future. Only when we
have developed a deterrent to low-intensity conflict as
successful as our nuclear deterrent and our deterrence of
conventional war in Europe will we be able to suppress Soviet
efforts in this area. As long as the Soviet Union thinks it can
cause the United States trouble in Central America while we do
them little harm in Afghanistan, and as long as they can begin
various minor wars using second and third level puppets, clients,
and colonies while we are incapable of responding except by the
direct use of American forces, the Soviets are going to have a
great advantage. They are going to pursue this zone of
international competition with great intensity and great
savagery.
Intellectually, politically, and professionally, low-intensity
conflict may be the most serious area of competition with the
Soviet Empire over the next 30 years. The free world must find a
legal, political, and diplomatic formula which enables us to cope
with low-intensity conflict. Until we find a way to deal with
Soviet-supported or other low-intensity conflict, we are going to
remain at a grave disadvantage in the competition for survival on
this planet.
This book is a serious step toward grappling with the
technical, intellectual, and military problems of low-intensity
conflict. The breadth of topics covered clearly indicates the
complexity and range of difficulties which Americans and our
allies in the free world have to explore if we are to develop a
successful response to low-intensity conflict. Any student of
American survival and any citizen concerned with understanding
how this nation can cope with the challenge of low-intensity
conflict more effectively will be served by studying this work.
Its authors are to be commended for a job well done and a
process well initiated.
[Original signed]
Newt Gingrich
House of Representatives
[…]
(Pages 249 to 260)
Part Two
TECHNOLOGY
THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM IN LOW-INTENSITY CONFLICT
By Capt Paul E. Tyler, MC, USN
Although electromagnetic radiation is familiar to everyone,
the prototype being visible light, and although some magnetic
and “electrical” properties have been observed for centuries (the
lodestone, for example), not until late in the eighteenth century
did scientists identify electromagnetism for what it really is,
explore its physics, and develop rational theories for its
practical use. Major contributions to this field include the
experiments and studies of Harvey, Helmholtz, and Maxwell.
Maxwell finally formulated the basic theory of the
electromagnetic field, which Hertz later verified. Today,
research on electromagnetic fields is moving in directions far
different from what these pioneer scientists envisioned or
attempted.
The results of many studies that have been published in the
last few years indicate that specific biological effects can be
achieved by controlling the various parameters of the
electromagnetic (EM) field. A few of the more important EM
factors can be manipulated are frequency, wave shape, rate of
pulse onset, pulse duration, pulse amplitude, repetition rate,
secondary modulation, and symmetry and asymmetry of the pulse.
Many of the clinical effects of electromagnetic radiation were
first noticed using direct current applied directly to the skin.
Later the same effects were obtained by applying external fields.
Electromagnetic radiation has been reported in the literature to
induce or enhance the following effects:
1. Stimulation of bone regeneration in fractures.
2. Healing of normal fractures.
3. Treatment of congenital pseudarthrosis.
4. Healing of wounds.
5. Electroanesthesia.
6. Electroconvulsive therapy.
7. Behavior modification in animals.
8. Altered electroencephalograms in animals and humans.
9. Altered brain morphology in animals.
10. Effects of acupuncture.
11. Treatment of drug addiction.
12. Electrostimulation for relief of pain.
13. Altered firing of neuronal cells.
These are but a few of the many biological effects and uses that
have been reported over the past decade. There are not exhaustive
and do not include many of the effects reported in the Soviet and
East European literature.
As with most human endeavors, these applications of
electromagnetic radiation have the potential for being a
double-edged sword. They can produce significant benefits, yet at
the same time can be exploited and used in a controlled manner
for military and covert operations. This paper focuses on the
potential uses of electromagnetic radiation in future
low-intensity conflicts.
POTENTIAL MILITARY APPLICATIONS OF EMR
The exploitation of this technology for military uses is still
in its infancy and only recently has been recognized by the
United States as a feasible option. A 1982 Air Force review of
biotechnology had this to say:
Currently available data allow the projection that specially
generated radio frequency radiation (RFR) fields may pose
powerful and revolutionary antipersonnel military threats.
Electroshock therapy indicates the ability of induced electric
current to completely interrupt mental functioning for short
periods of time, to obtain cognition for longer periods and to
restructure emotional response over prolonged intervals.
Experience with electroshock therapy, RFR experiments and the
increasing understanding of the brain as an electrically
mediated organ suggested the serious probability that impressed
electromagnetic fields can de disruptive to purposeful behavior
and may be capable of directing and or interrogating such
behavior.
Further, the passage of approximately 100 milliamperes through
the myocardium can lead to cardiac standstill and death, again
pointing to a speed-of-light weapons effect.
A rapidly scanning RFR system could provide an effective stun
or kill capability over a large area. System effectiveness will
be a function of wave form, field intensity, pulse widths,
repetition frequency, and carrier frequency. The system can be
developed using tissue and whole animal experimental studies,
coupled with mechanisms and waveform effects research.
Using relatively low-level RFR, it may be possible to sensitize
large military groups to extremely dispersed amounts of
biological or chemical agents to which the unirradiated
population would be immune.(1)
The potential applications of artificial electromagnetic fields
are wide ranging and can be used in many military or
quasi-military situations.
Some of the potential uses include dealing with terrorist
groups, crowd control, controlling breached of security at
military installations, and antipersonnel techniques in tactical
warfare. In all of these cases the EM systems would be used to
produce mild to severe physiological disruption or perceptual
distortion or disorientation. In addition the ability of
individuals to function could be degraded to such a point that
they would be combat ineffective. Another advantage of
electromagnetic systems is that they could provide coverage over
large areas with a single system. They are silent and
countermeasures to them may be difficult to develop. Assuming
that electromagnetic radiation can be controlled to produce a
specific adverse biological effect, the equal possibility exists
that one can produce a beneficial effect such as enhancing the
performance of the individuals. This development would provide
personnel with enhanced capabilities in time of need. For
example, if a small force is required to operate in isolation for
an extended period of time, then local exposure to the right
parameters of electromagnetic radiation may give this force the
ability to do so with minimal rest and still maintain peak
performance. One last area where electromagnetic radiation may
prove to be of some value is in enhancing abilities of
individuals for anomalous phenomena.
CLASSICAL THEORY VERSES RECENT THEORETICAL RESEARCH
Even though the body is basically an electrochemical system,
modern science has been almost exclusively studied the chemical
aspects of the body and to this date has largely neglected the
electrical aspects. However, over the past decade researchers
have devised many mathematical models to approximate the
internal fields in animals and humans. Some of the later models
have shown general agreement with experimental measurements made
with phantom models and animals. Presently most scientists in
the field use the concept of specific absorption rate of
dosimetry of electromagnetic radiation. Specific absorption rate
is the intensity of the internal electric field or quantity of
energy absorbed per unit time is per unit mass. The latest
edition of the Dosimetry Handbook discusses specific absorption
rate in detail.(2) Tables 2-4 and 2-5 present the depth of
penetration of various frequencies of electromagnetic radiation
in biological tissues according to current electromagnetic
theory. However, the use of these classical concepts of
electrodynamics does not explain some experimental and clinical
findings. For example, according to classical physics, the
frequency of visible light would indicate that it is reflected
or totally absorbed within the first few millimeters of tissue
and thus no light should pass through significant amounts of
tissue. But it does. Also, classical theory indicates that the
body should be completely invisible to extremely low frequencies
of light where a single wave length is a thousand miles long.
However, visible light has been used in clinical medicine to
transilluminate various body tissues. The technique is
particularly useful in observing the skulls of infants and the
various sinus cavities.
A second area of classical theory fails to provide an adequate
explanation for observed effects is in the clinical use for
extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields.
Researchers have found that pulsed external magnetic fields at
frequencies below 100 hertz will stimulate the healing of
nonunion fractures, congenital pseudarthroses, and failed
arthroses.(3) The effects of these pulsed magnetic fields have
been extremely impressive and their use in orthopedic conditions
had been approved by the Food and Drug Administration.
Recently, pulsed electromagnetic fields have been reported to
induce cellular transcription.(4) At the other end of the
nonionizing spectrum, research reports are also showing
biological effects that are not predicted by classical theories.
For example, Kremer and others have published several papers
showing that low-intensity millimeter waves produce biological
effects. They have also shown that not only are the effects seen
at a very low power, but they are also frequency specific.(5)
As a result of theses and other studies, several groups of
scientists have been reevaluating their concepts and looking for
new solutions. Some of the newer approaches have included the
recognition that biological systems are nonlinear and rather
than apply simple linear functions to the interaction of
electromagnetic fields and biological systems, one must use
nonlinear wave mechanics. Some researchers have even
incorporated the mathematics of chaos dynamics.
================================================================
MindNet Journal – Vol. 1, No. 42b * [Part 2 of 3 parts]
================================================================
V E R I C O M M / MindNet “Quid veritas est?”
================================================================
Notes:
Permission is given to reproduce and redistribute, for
non-commercial purposes only, provided this information and the
copy remain intact and unedited.
The views and opinions expressed below are not necessarily the
views and opinions of VERICOMM, MindNet, or the editors unless
otherwise noted.
Editor: Mike Coyle
Contributing Editors: Walter Bowart
Alex Constantine
Martin Cannon
Assistant Editor: Rick Lawler
Research: Darrell Bross
================================================================
[Continued from part 1]
The result of this rethinking has been the acceptance by many
scientists that intrinsic electromagnetic fields play a key role
in a wide range of biological functions, including embryogenesis,
bone repair, and information transfer and storage, particularly
in the central nervous system. I addition, many scientists and
researchers have speculated as the adverse effects of EM fields
on biological systems. Some recent work using the concepts of
chaos dynamics may have a major impact upon how one looks at
external systems interactions with biological systems. Scientists
have known for some time that chaotic behavior of systems exists
in physics and chemistry. More recently its mathematics on
nonlinear differential equations has been applied to biology.
In simple terms, systems will behave “normally” over a wide
range of conditions then suddenly shift into a chaotic mode when
a single parameter (among many) moves through a critical value.
Thus a tiny change in one parameter can result in a drastic
alterations in the behavior of a system. Dr. Rapp of the Medical
College of Pennsylvania has suggested that epileptic behavior and
other convulsions may be the result of chaotic behavior within
the central nervous system. He cites theoretical evidence that
suggest that neural networks are capable of shifting into chaotic
behavior. Guerara and others have recently reported the onset of
chaotic behavior in chicken heart cells when stimulated by
electrical signals at specific frequencies and amplitudes. It has
also been shown that normal breathing takes place at certain
frequencies and amplitudes, but not at others. Animals forced to
breathe at certain unnatural frequencies develop severe
respiratory distress.
This past year, Dr. Adey has evaluated a Soviet LIDA medical
instrument that has been claimed to induce sleep. The instrument
can produce pulsed sound, light heat, and electromagnetic energy.
The four modalities can be useful all together, singly, or of any
combination of the four. Soviet medical literature contains
claims that the use of the instrument will benefit “inorganically
caused neuropsychic and somatic disorders, such as neuroses,
insomnia and hypertension.” Their concept of what is “inorganic”
is questionable and why they seem to relate to hypertension with
neuroses and psychoses is unknown.
According to Dr. Adey’s report, electromagnetic fields may
induce a slower rate of state transitions in cats. The
electromagnetic field alone was capable of prolonging particular
sleep states. The efficacy of the EM field alone to prolong a
sleep state was less than when combined with either visual or
auditory stimuli. The use of visual and auditory stimuli without
the electromagnetic field also shifted sleep patterns to deeper
levels, but did not alter rates of state transitions. Dr. Adey
felt that there may be a synergistic action between the
electromagnetic field and the rhythmic sensory stimuli to achieve
sustained states at one sleep level–a condition that was not
present when any single stimulus was delivered alone.
The instrument used in the Soviet experiments was considered
to be of 1950s technology, using a self-excited oscillator and
vacuum tubes. The center frequency was 40 megahertz, but
harmonic and spurious radiations in excess of 1 gigahertz were
noted. The pulse duration was 0.3 seconds with a repetition rate
of 10 to 100 pulses per minute. Reports in the literature state
that many newer and more effective models have been developed.
In a recent paper, Ubeda, Delgado, and others reported that
the pulse shape of a pulsed magnetic field has an influence upon
the development of chicken embryos. They reported that using
four different-shaped pulses resulted in differing effects on
the embryos. The first signal had a rise time of 100
microseconds with a declining plateau. The second signal was
basically a square wave with a rise time of 2 microseconds. The
third had a rise time of 42 microseconds with a secondary
modulation throughout the signal. The forth signal also had a
rise time of 42 microseconds without the superimposed modulation.
All pulses had a 500-microsecond duration and a repetition of
100 hertz. The results showed that some wave forms interfered
with embryogenesis while others did not. A windowing effect also
noted with the exposure intensities: some effects were noted at
low intensities but not at higher intensities.
Windowing of both frequency and power amplitude have also been
reported by other investigators. The phenomenon was first
reported by Adey and his coworkers in the early seventies, but
until recently has not been widely accepted as an important
parameter. The specific wave form and windowing of both the
frequency and amplitude may have very specific biological targets
and effects. Bassett has reported that in his laboratory recent
studies have shown that the voltage wave form induced by a given
pulse appears characteristically different in various tissues and
organs. He goes on to state that it is possible to identify the
tissue type by an analysis of the frequency response pattern,
using fast Fourier transforms.
Most scientists in the United States have discounted many of
the Soviet reports that exposure to the low levels of
electromagnetic radiation causes these types of biological
effects. Until recently many scientists believed both that
thermal heating was the only mechanism which could produce
biological effects at that levels reported in the Soviet and East
European literature could not induce a significant thermal burden
in the human body and thus could not produce any biological
effects. The second major reason for disbelief was the attempt by
early researchers to duplicate some of the Soviet research and
their failure to find similar results. Those failures to
replicate the Soviet work were the result of several factors,
which include the lack of sufficient details in Soviet reports as
to their exact protocols; like of similar equipment: use of
different frequencies: and use of higher power levels and finding
no effects, and so assuming–without checking–that lower levels
would also show no effects. And in some cases the reports were
not valid in the first place. Even in the Soviet literature one
finds many contradictions and so must read and evaluate it with a
critical eye.
Current research in chaotic behavior has shown that the
alteration of only one parameter to a critical phase can induce
chaotic behavior with drastic outcomes. It is not too difficult
to envision that electromagnetic systems could interact with the
electrical signal in cardiac muscle. If the proper parameters
were utilized, several possible results could be produced. These
include auricular and ventricular fibrillation, or complete
asystole with a resultant fatal outcome.
Past research has shown both altered behavior in animals and
altered electroencephalograms (EEG) in both humans and animals.
What these EEG changes mean in practical terms to humans at the
present time is difficult to say, since we still like a great
deal of knowledge and there is much controversy about what a
“normal” EEG means. It is currently impossible to understand and
to predict how an altered EEG can influence behavior and the
cognitive processes of an individual. Some current research
provides a few clues that altering brain waves can have a major
impact on a person’s cognitive and overt behavior. In this
regard, some people have even speculated that electromagnetism
has already been used for this purpose.(17)
Some recent theoretical research has looked at the classical
neuronal synapse and proposed that the size of the synaptic space
is so small that rather than a pure chemical event taking place,
it must be a quantum mechanical event. Classically it has been
assumed that an action potential transverses down the axion and
directly stimulates these vesicules to release their chemical
neurotransmitter, which then cross the synapse and trigger the
second neuron to fire its action potential. If it is true that
the event is quantum mechanical in nature then the following
events may be taking place rather than events envisioned in the
classical chemical concept. The action potential descends down
the axion and produces a bias across the synaptic junction, which
then induces electron tunneling in a reverse direction, which in
turn causes a conformational change in the vesicules. This
conformational change causes these vesicules to release their
neurotransmitter. The mechanism also involves leakage currents
from nearby neurons and perineuronal cells. The cells are
“talking” to each other so that the system is far more complex
than once thought. These quantum mechanical events being
statistical in nature and depending upon crosstalk from other
cells instead of a pure internal electrical conductance within
the single cell, infer that the complex system will be
susceptible to external nonlinear electromagnetic influences. The
disruption of neural pathways can lead to a multitude of effects.
With today’s sophisticated weapon systems, one does not have to
totally disable individuals to render then inefficient for
combat. For example, if their timing is altered or their
cognitive processes are degraded these individuals may be unable
to operate their equipment (fly their aircraft, make the proper
decision with computer-operated systems, or successfully complete
related action).
Because of the many parameters involved and the apparent
specificity of each parameter, one can tailor a specific
response. The ability to have this kind of flexibility provides
an enormous range of option to the user. It opens the door for
providing the appropriate response in warfare, be it conventional
or unconventional. There are still many unanswered questions
concerning this technology. To date, the vast majority of
research done in this country has focused on using single
frequency sources with standard parameters. No one has used
multiple frequencies during a single exposure, nor has anyone
tried to manipulate the parameters to produce biological effects.
Up to the present time the majority of scientists in the United
States have assumed that a “microwave is a microwave,” and
research done at one frequency would be applicable to any
frequency in the same region. We now know that the experiment
must be frequency specific, but how specific? Does this change
for various portions of the electromagnetic spectrum? There are
unconfirmed reports that a change of .01 hertz can make a
difference. Most scientist still do not believe that this small a
change in frequency will make a difference. Yet, Rapp has shown
that a frequency-encoded signal can act as a trigger for the
release of amylase from the salivary glands of the blowfly
(Calliphora exythocephalla). The variation in the frequency that
modified the release of the enzyme was from 0.00 hertz to 0.056
hertz. In this study the stimulus was the chemical
5-hydroxytryptaime. What is of particular interest is that the
original chemical interaction was converted to a digital
frequency oscillation. The general reaction was analog to digital
and back to analog. A fundamental question is, could the same
response be obtained by bypassing the initial chemical (analog)
input and stimulate the cell directly with and electromagnetic
signal at these same frequencies. The results of this experiment
certainly indicate that a narrow specific frequency may be
required to obtain specific results.
Contrary to the Soviets’ materialistic approach to this area
and their utilization of electromagnetic radiation as an
explanation for all such events, it is doubtful that most such
events can be attributed to electromagnetic fields. Nevertheless,
the evidence does indicate that certain functions and
capabilities in the area can be enhanced with the proper use of
electromagnetic fields. But, again this area has received very
little attention. Certainly adequate research by competent
scientists has not been done.
A large portion of this paper may read like Buck Rogers and
the twenty-first century. Many readers will say that some of the
ideas and concepts do not fit with their current concepts and
theories of physics and biology. This may be true in part, but
then most of the medical science I learned in medical school more
than 25 years ago is not valid today. Certainly the concepts in
this paper will not fit with classical physics. One is reminded
of the trite saying that the science fiction of today is the
scientific facts of tomorrow. I think this philosophy was
elegantly stated by Werner Eisenberg in a speech given in 1934.
Now that we know all our journeying can only bring us back to
our starting point, we realize that we are unable to reach full
understanding no matter how far we travel. The infinity of the
universe lies outside this path. In quite a similar way modern
physics has shown that the structure of classical physics–as
that of modern physics–is complete in itself. Classical
physics extends just as far as the conceptions which forms
its basis can be applied. But these conceptions already fail
us when applied to the process of nuclear physics, and much
more so in the case of all fields of science which are even
further removed from classical physics. This is the hope of
understanding all aspects of intellectual life on the
principles of classical physics is no more justified than the
hope of the traveler who believes that he will have obtained
the answer to all problems once he has journeyed to the end
of the world.
Yet the misunderstanding, that the transformations in exact
science have brought to light certain limits to the
application of rational thinking, must be immediately be
countered. A narrow field of application is given to certain
ways of thought only, and not to rational thought in general.
The discovery that the earth is not the world, but only a
small and discrete part of the world, has enabled us to
relegate to its proper position the illusory “end of the
world” concept, and instead to map the whole surface of the
earth accurately. In a similar way modern physics has purged
classical physics of its arbitrary belief in its unlimited
application. It has shown that some parts of our science, e.g.,
mechanics, electricity, and quantum theory, present scientific
systems complete in themselves, rational and capable of
complete investigation. They state their respective natural
laws, probably correctly, for all time. The essence of this
statement is given by the phrase “completeness in itself”
(Abgeschlossenheit). The most important new result of nuclear
physics was the recognition of the possibility of applying
quite different types of natural laws, without contradiction,
to one and the same physical event. This is due to the fact
that within a system of laws which are based on certain
fundamental ideas only certain quite definite ways of asking
questions make sense, and thus, that such a system is
separated from others which allow different questions to be
put. Thus, the transition in science from previously
investigated fields of experience to new ones will never
consist simply of the application of already known laws to
these new fields. On the contrary, a really new field of
experience will always lead to the crystallization of a
new system of scientific concepts and laws. They will be no
less capable of rational analysis than the old ones, but
their nature will be fundamentally different. It is for
this reason that modern physics adopt an attitude very
different from classical physics toward all those fields
not yet included into its investigations. Let us, for
example, consider the problems concerned with the
existence of living organisms. From the standpoint of modern
physics, according to Bohr, we should expect the laws
characteristic of these organisms to be separated from the
purely physical laws in a rational and accurately
comprehensive manner, just as, say quantum theory is
separate from classical mechanics. A similar solution
will, on a smaller scale, apply to the investigation into
the properties of the atomic nucleus, which occupies the
center of interest in contemporary physics. The edifice of
exact science can hardly be looked upon as a consistent and
coherent unit in the naive way we had hoped. Simply
following the prescribed route from any given point will
not lead to all other rooms of this building; for it
consists of specific parts, and though each of these is
connected to the others by many passageways and each may
encompass some others or be encompassed by others,
nevertheless each is a unit complete in itself. The advance
from the parts already completed to the newly discovered,
or newly erected, demands each time an intellectual jump,
which cannot be achieved through the simple development of
already existing knowledge.(19)
Notes
1. _Final Report on Biotechnology Research Requirements for
Aeronautical Systems Through the Year 2000_, AFOSR-TR-82-0643,
vol. 1 and vol. 2, 30 July 1982.
2. C.E. Durney, M.F. Iskander, H. Massoudi, S.J.Allen, and J.C.
Mitchell, _Radiofrequency Radiation Dosimetry Handbook_, 3d ed.,
SAM-TR-80-32, Brooks AFB, Texas (1980), 136.
3. For detailed discussions of this research, see C.A.L.
Bassett, A.A. Pitla et al., “A Nonoperative Salvage of Surgically
Resistant Pseudarthroses and Nonunions by Pulsing Electromagnetic
Fields.” _Clinical Orthopaedics_ 124 (1977), 128-43; C.A.L.
Bassett, N. Caulo et al., “Congenial ‘Pseudarthroses’ of the
Tibia–Treatment with Pulsating Electromagnetic Fields,” Clinical
Orthopaedics 154 (1981), 136-49; C.A.L. Bassett, S.N. Mitchell et
al., “Treatment of Ununified Tibial Diaphyseal Fractures with
Pulsating Electromagnetic Fields,” _Journal of Bone Joint Surgery
63:A (1981), 511-23; C.A.L. Bassett, S.N. Mitchell et al.,
“Pulsing Electromagnetic Field Treatment in Ununited Fractures
and Failed Arthroses,” _Journal of American Medical Association_
247 (1982), 623-28; C.A.L. Bassett, “Biomedical Implications of
Pulsing Electromagnetic Fields,” _Surgical Rounds_ (January
1983), 22-31; J.S. Kort et al., “Congenital Pseudarthrosis of the
Tibia: Treatment with Pulsing Electromagnetic Fields, The
International Experience,” _Clinical Orthopaedics_ 165 (1982),
124-37; L. Sedal, P. Christel et al., “Resultants de le
stimulation par champ electromagnetique de la consolidation des
psuedarthroses, apropos de 37 cas,” _Review of Chiropractic
Orthopaedics_ 67 (1981), 11-23; W.J. Sharrard, M.L. Sutcliff et
al., “The Treatment of Fibrous Nonunion of Fractures by Pulsing
Electromagnetic Stimulation,” _Journal of Bone Joint Surgery_
64:B (1982), 189-93; and M.L. Sutcliff and A.A.J. Goldberg, “The
Treatment of Congenital Psuedarthrosis of the Tibia with Pulsing
Electromagnetic Fields, A Survey of 52 Cases,” _Clinical
Orthopaedics 166 (1982), 45-57.
4. R. Goodman, C.A.L. Bassett, and A.S. Henderson, “Pulsing
Electromagnetic Fields Induce Cellular Transcription,” _Science_
220 (17 June 1983): 1283-85.
5. F. Kremer, C. Koschnitzke, L. Santo, P. Quick, and A.
Paglitsch, “The Nonthermal Effect of Millimeter Wave Radiation on
the Puffing of Giant Chromosomes,” in H. Frohlich and F. Kremer,
eds., _Coherent Excitations in Biological Systems_ )Berlin:
Springer-Verlag, 1983).
6. A.F. Lawrence and W.R. Adey, “Nonlinear Wave Mechanisms in
Interactions Between Excitable Tissue and Electromagnetic
Fields,” _Neurological Research_ 4:1/2 (1982), 115-53.
7. P.E. Rapp, A.I. Mees, and C.T. Sparrow, “Frequency Encoded
Biochemical Regulation Is More Accurate Than Amplitude Dependent
Control,” _Theoretical Biology_ 90 (1981), 531-44.
8. J.M.R. Delgado, J. Leal, J.L. Monteaguo, and M.G. Garcia,
“Embryological Changes Induced by Weak, Extremely Low Frequency
Electromagnetic Fields,” _Journal of Anatomy_ 134 (1982), 533-51.
9. Bassett, Pilla et al., “Treatment”; Bassett, Mitchell et
al., “Pulsing Electromagnetic Field Treatment”; and Bassett,
“Biomedical Implications.”
10. Kort et al., “Congenital Psuedarthroses.”
11. M.R. Guerara, L. Glass, and A. Shrier, “Phase Lacking,
Period- Doubling Bifurcations and Irregular Dynamics in
Periodically Stimulated Cardiac cells,” _Science_ 214 (1981),
1350-53.
12. Ibid.
13. W.R. Adey, “Possible behavioral Effects Produced by Pulsed
RF Fields from Soviet `LIDA’ Medical Therapy Instrument,”
contact report N60921, NSWC, October 1983.
14. A. Ubeda, J. Leal, M.A. Trillo, M.A. Jimanez, and J.M.R.
Delgado, “Pulse Shape of Magnetic Fields Influence Chick
Embryogensis,” _Journal of Anatomy_, in press.
15. W.R. Adey, “Tissue Interactions with Nonionizing
Electromagnetic Fields,” _Physiology Review 61 (1981), 435-514;
S.M. Bawin, W.R. Adey , and I.M. Sabbot, “Ionic Factors in
Release of 45/Ca from Chicken Cerebral Tissue in Electromagnetic
Fields,” _Proceedings of National Academy of Science_ (USA) 75
(1978), 6314-18; S.M. Bawin, L.K. Kaczmarek, and W.R. Adey,
“Effects of Modulated VHF Fields on the Cerebral Nervous
System,” _Annals of NY Academy of Science_ 247 (1975), 74-81;
C.S. Blackman, J.A. Elder, C.M. Weil, S.G. Beunane, D.C.
Eichinger, and D.E. Hause, “Induction of Calcium Ion Efflux from
Brain Tissue by Radiofrequency Radiation: Effects of Modulation
Frequency and Field Strength,” _Radio Science_ 14 (1979), 93-98.
16. Bassett, “Biomedical Implications.”
17. M. Ebon, _Psychio Warfare_ (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1983),
118-20.
18. Rapp, Mees, and Sparrow, “Frequency Encoded Biochemical
Regulation.”
19. Werner Eisenberg, speech to the first general session on
the occasion of the general meeting of the Gesellschaft duetsher
Naturforscher and Aserzte, Hanover, 17 September 1934. Originally
published in Naturwissenshaften 1934, 22 Jabrg., Heft 40.
OTHER REFERENCES
E. Aarholt, E.A. Flinn, and L.W. Smith, “Magnetic Fields Affect
the Lac Operon System,” _Physics, Medicine, and Biology_ 27
(1982), 606-10.
W.R. Adey, “Models of Membranes of Cerebral Cells as Substrates
for Information Storage,” _Biosystems_ 8 (1977), 163-78.
S.M. Bawin, A.R. Sheppard, and W.R. Adey, “Possible Mechanism
of Weak Electromagnetic Field Complexing in Brain Tissues,”
_Bioelectrochemistry, Biogenetics_ 5 (1978), 67-76.
G. Collaccio and A.A. Pilla, “Electromagnetic Modulatran of
Biological Processes: Chemical, Physical, and Biological
Correlates in the Ca- Uptake by Embyronal Chick Tibia _in
vitro_,” _Biochemistry, Biogenetics_ 10 (1983), 120c.
R.A. Luben, C.D. Cain, D.M. Rose, and W.R. Adey, “Effects of
Electromagnetic Stimuli on Bone and Bone Cells _in vitro_:
Inhibitions of Responses to Parathyroid Hormone by Low-Energy,
Low-Frequency Fields,” _Proceedings of National Academy of
Science_ (USA) 79 (1982), 4180-84.
L.A. Nortan, A. Shteyer, and G.A. Rohan, “Electromagnetic Field
Effects on DNA Synthesis in Bone Cells,” _Journal of
Electrochemistry_ 127 (1980), 129c.
A.A. Pilla, “The Rate of Modulation of Cell and Tissue Function
via Electrochemical Information Transfer,” in R.O. Becker, ed.,
_Mechanism of Growth Control_ (Springfield, Ill.: C.C. Thomas
Press, 1982), 211-36.
[…]
[END]
================================================================
MindNet Journal – Vol. 1, No. 42c * [Part 3 of 3 parts]
================================================================
V E R I C O M M / MindNet “Quid veritas est?”
================================================================
TABLE 2-4
Characteristics of Electromagnetic Wave Propagation
in Tissues of High Water Content Represented by
Muscles and Skin at Various Frequencies
===========================================================================
Frequency Wavelength Depth of Dielec- Conduc- Reflection Coefficient
MHz Air/Tissue Penetra- tic tivity at Interface
cm tion Constant mho/cm ———————-
cm Air/Muscle Muscle/Fat
—————————————————————————
100 300/27 6.66 71.7 0.889 0.881 +175 0.650 -7.96
200 150/16.6 4.79 56.5 1.28 0.844 +175 0.612 -8.06
300 100/11.0 3.89 54 1.37 0.825 +175 0.592 -8.14
433 69.318.76 3.57 53 1.43 0.803 +175 0.562 -7.06
750 40/5.34 3.18 52 1.54 0.779 +176 0.532 -5.69
925 32.8/4.46 3.04 51 1.60 0.772 +177 0.519 -4.32
1,500 20/2.81 2.42 49 1.77 0.761 +177 0.506 -3.66
2,450 12.2/1.76 1.70 47 2.21 0.754 +177 0.500 -3.88
3,000 10/1.45 1.61 46 2.26 0.751 +178 0.495 -3.20
5,000 6/0.89 0.788 44 3.92 0.749 +177 0.502 -4.95
5,800 5.17/0.775 0.720 43.3 4.73 0.746 +177 0.503 -4.29
8,000 3.75/0.578 0.413 40 7.65 0.744 +176 0.503 -6.65
10,000 3.0.464 0.343 39.9 10.3 0.743 +176 0.518 -5.95
—————————————————————————
Source: S. Baranski and P. Czerski, _Biological Effects of Microwave_
(Stroudsburg, Pa.: Dowden, Hutchinson, and Ross, 1976).
TABLE 2-5
Characteristics of Electromagnetic Wave Propagation
in Tissues of Low Content Represented by Fat and
Bone at Various Frequencies
===========================================================================
Frequency Wavelength Depth of Dielec- Conduc- Reflection Coefficient
MHz Air/Tissue Penetra- tic tivity at Interface
cm tion Constant mho/cm ———————-
cm Air/Fat Fat/Muscle
—————————————————————————
100 300/10.6 60.4 7.45 19.1-75.0 0.511 +168 0.650 +172
200 150/59.7 39.2 5.95 25.8-94.2 0.458 +168 0.612 +172
300 100/41 31.1 5.7 31.6-107 0.438 +169 0.592 +172
433 69.3/28.8 26.2 5.6 37.9-118 0.427 +170 0.562 +173
750 40/16.8 23 5.6 49.8-138 0.415 +173 0.532 +174
925 32.8/13.7 17.7 5.6 55.6-147 0.417 +173 0.519 +176
1,500 20/8.41 13.0 5.6 70.8-171 0.412 +174 0.506 +176
2,450 12.2/5.21 11.2 5.5 96.4-213 0.406 +176 0.500 +176
3,000 10/4.25 9.74 5.5 110-234 0.406 +176 0.495 +177
5,000 6/2.63 6.67 5.5 162-309 0.393 +176 0.502 +175
5,800 5.17/2.29 5.24 5.05 186-338 0.388 +176 0.503 +176
8,000 3.75/1.73 4.61 4.7 255-431 0.371 +176 0.503 +173
10,000 3/1.41 3.39 4.5 324-549 0.363 +175 0.518 +174
—————————————————————————
Source: S. Baranski and P. Czerski, _Biological Effects_.
—————————————————————-

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